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I Knead You

Swedish Massage


Swedish massage is the most popular type of massage in Canada and the United States. It involves the use of hands, forearms or elbows to manipulate the superficial layers of the muscles to improve mental and physical health. Active or passive movement of the joints may also be part of the massage. The benefits of Swedish massage include increased blood circulation, mental and physical relaxation, decreased stress and muscle tension, and improved range of motion.


Swedish massage was invented by a Swedish fencing instructor named Per Henrik Ling in the 1830s. When he was injured in the elbows, he reportedly cured himself using tapping (percussion) strokes around the affected area. He later developed the technique currently known as Swedish massage.

This technique was brought to the United States from Sweden by two brothers, Dr. Charles and Dr. George Taylor in the 1850s. The specific techniques used in Swedish massage involve the application of long gliding strokes, friction, and kneading and tapping movements on the soft tissues of the body. Sometimes, passive or active joint movements are also used.


Unlike drug therapy, which is often associated with many systemic and long-term side effects, massage therapy is relatively safe and has few contraindications. It also provides many benefits.

  • Physical Benefits

There are numerous physical benefits associated with the use of Swedish massage: 

Loosening tight muscles and stretching connective tissues.

Relieving cramps and muscle spasms and decreasing muscle fatigue.

Loosening joints and improving range of motion

Increasing muscle strength.

Sedating the nervous system.

Stimulating blood circulation.

Firming up muscle and skin tone.

Relieving symptoms of such disorders as asthma, arthritis, carpal tunnel
syndrome, chronic and acute pain syndromes, myofascial pain, headache,
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, and athletic injuries.

Speeding up healing from injury and illness.

Improving lymphatic drainage of metabolic wastes


  • Mental and Emotional Benefits

Mental benefits associated with massage therapy include the following:

Mental relaxation.

Improvement in length and quality of sleep.

Relief of stress, depression, anxiety and irritation.

Increased ability to concentrate.

Improved sense of well-being.

  • Description

Depending on the client's preferences, a massage session may involve the use of several or all of the following basic techniques:


Effleurage is the most common stroke in Swedish massage. It is a free-flowing and gliding movement towards the heart, tracing the contours of the body using the palm of one or both hands. Oil is applied with this stroke to begin the first stage of massage. The therapist applies a light or medium constant pressure. This stroke is used to warm up the muscles, relax the body, calm the nerves, improve blood circulation and heart function, and improve lymphatic drainage.

This technique resembles kneading dough. It involves lifting, rolling, and squeezing the flesh under or between the hands. Petrissage is designed to release muscle tension, improve blood flow, and increase lymphatic drainage.

Friction strokes work on deeper muscles than the techniques previously described. The friction technique is a pressure stroke and is the deepest that is used in Swedish massage.
The massage therapist applies pressure by placing the weight of his or her body on the flat of the hand and the pads of the thumbs, knuckles, fingers, or the back of the forearms, and then releases the pressure slowly and gently. This movement should be a continuous sliding motion or a group of
alternating circular motions.

To effect vibration, the massage therapist gently shakes or trembles the flesh with the hand or fingertips, then moves on to another spot and repeats this stroke. Vibration is designed to release muscle tension in small muscle areas, such as those on the face or along the spine.

Tapotement, or tapping and percussion, is a quick, choppy, rhythmic movement that has a stimulating or toning effect. The following are variations of tapotement:
Cupping: The therapist forms the hands into a cup shape with fingers
straight but bending only at the lower knuckles; the thumbs are kept close
to the palms. The therapist strikes the flesh with the flat of the hands one
after another in quick succession.
Hacking: This technique is similar to cupping. The therapist uses the sides
of the hands with palms facing one another to make a chopping movement. 
Pummeling: For this stroke, the therapist makes loose fists in both hands
and applies them rapidly in succession over the thighs and buttocks.

Tapotement techniques are invigorating to most people but may be too strong for some. When prolonged, tapotement leads to over stimulation and even exhaustion of the nerves and muscles. In addition, it should not be used over varicose veins or directly above bony structures.

  • Conscious Breathwork

(aka Re-birthing)

For a working definition of this technique, please view the following: